1846: The State of Jammu and Kashmir is created under the Treaty of Amristar, when the Maharaja Gulab Singh buys the Kashmir Valley from the East India Company and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.

1857: The Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British/First Indian War of Independence.

1931: The movement against the Maharaja in Kashmir begins but is suppressed by State forces.

1932: Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah sets up the ‘All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference’ to fight for Kashmiri freedom from the Maharaja's rule, which would branch off to become the National Conference in 1939. The Glancy Commission publishes a report in April 1932, highlighting the inequality of the Muslim population and discusses the need for their adequate representation in the state's services; the Maharaja accepts these recommendations but delays implementation; the Maharaja grants a Constitution providing a legislative assembly for the people, but the Assembly turns out to be powerless.

1939: The National Conference launches the ‘Quit Kashmir’ movement demanding abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar and a call of sovereignty for the people of Kashmir.

1940: The Pakistan Resolution is passed and demands the establishment of an independent state, comprising all regions in which Muslims are the majority.

1947 (Mar): An internal revolt begins in the Poonch region but is suppressed by the Maharaja’s forces.

1947 (15 Aug): The partition of India: The British Indian Empire is dissolved and the Muslim-majority areas in the East and West are partitioned to form the separate state of Pakistan.

Image from JP, published under the creative commons license.

1947: Kashmir signs the Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. The Maharaja delays his decision to accede into either India or Pakistan.

1947 (Oct): Indo-Pakistani War of 1947:  Thousands of Pashtuns from Pakistan’s North West Frontier Province attack Kashmir and the Maharaja’s forces. The Maharaja ask India for help, who abides under the conditions that he relinquish control over defense, communication and foreign affairs to India. The Maharaja agrees and signs the Instrument of Accession.

The Indian Army enters the state to repel the invaders. Sheikh Abdullah endorses the accession as ad-hoc which would be ultimately decided by a plebiscite and is appointed head of the emergency administration.

1948: India takes the Kashmir problem to the UN Security Council. The resolution orders the cessation of hostilities and a formulation of a truce agreement, and that a plebiscite should determine the future of Jammu and Kashmir. However, both countries cannot agree on the terms of demilitarisation.

1949: On 1 January, the ceasefire between Indian and Pakistani forces leaves India in control of most of the valley, as well as Jammu and Ladakh, while Pakistan gains control of part of Kashmir including, what Pakistan calls, Azad Kashmir and Northern territories.

1950 (Jan): India gains independence and becomes a republic.

1957: India’s Home Minister declares that the State of Jammu and Kashmir is a fundamental part of India and there can be no question of a plebiscite. Kashmiri activists continue to insist on self-determination.

1963 (Dec): Mass uprisings occur in the Kashmir Valley and protests occur against Articles 356 and 357 of the Indian Constitution, by which the Indian government can exercise legislative powers. The Indian army attacks the protesters.

1965: Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. Pakistan backs rebel groups in Kashmir and sends armed Pakistani infiltrators to join them across the ceasefire line, which leads to more violence across the whole of the Kashmir Valley.

1966: Kashmiri nationalists form another Plebiscite Front with an armed wing called the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front (NLF) in Azad Kashmir, with the objective of freeing Kashmir from Indian occupation.

1971: The Indo-Pakistan War of 1971: Pakistan descends into civil war after East Pakistan demands autonomy and later independence of what will become Bangladesh.

1972: India and Pakistan agree to a ceasefire, and sign the Simla Agreement, which states that they will respect the Line of Control, the border between the two countries and China. However, fighting continues along this line, making it one of the most violent and dangerous border lines in the world.

1987-1990: Kashmir Insurgency: After the 1987 elections the Muslim United Front (MUF) declares the elections as rigged, and the insurgency in the valley increases. The MUF candidate later breaks away to become head of the militant group Hizb-ul-Mujahedin. Further protests and anti-India demonstrations in the Kashmir Valley followed by police retaliation, arrests and curfew orders by the Indian police and army.

1989: At the end of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan a great deal of weapons are released into Kashmir and Pakistan provides further training to Kashmiri and foreign militant groups in Kashmir. The Kashmiri independence movement becomes more Islamist in its ideology.

1990 (1 Mar): An estimated one million people take to the streets in protest of the Indian occupation and more than 40 people are killed by the police. This is seen by many as the beginning of a massive Kashmiri uprising, but India claims that it is orchestrated by Pakistani trained operatives. Many of the 162,500 Hindu community in Kashmir flee the area to refugee camps in Jammu.

protest image from mfr_isb@yahoo.com, published under a creative commons license

1990: An estimated 34,000 people have been killed since 1978.

1998: India and Pakistan perform nuclear tests in a show of strength.

1999: Indian and Pakistani militaries clash in Kargil, India launches air-strikes in Kashmir.

1999: General Musharraf leads a military coup in Pakistan.

2000 (Nov): India puts a ceasefire into effect in Kashmir. However, violence continues.

2001 (Oct): Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar attacked and 38 people are killed.

2001 (Dec): Attack on Indian parliament in New Dehli. The militant groups Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed take responsibility.

2003: India and Pakistan restore diplomatic ties.

2004 (24 Sep): Prime Minister Singh and President Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly for first round of peace talks.

2006: Second round of Indo-Pakistan peace talks.

2007: Amnesty International and other human rights organisations report of gross human rights violations from India that include systematic arrests and detentions, enforced curfews, and testimonies of rape and torture. India denies many of these claims and states it is suppressing terrorism.

2008 (Aug): The beginning of the second uprising by local groups and youths which leads to massive redeployment of Indian security forces.

2010 (Aug): Tens of thousands of people stage street demonstrations against the deaths of two young men detained in Indian custody.

2010 (Sep): The Indian government has claimed it will release hundreds of students and young people after months of civil unrest that has left at least 107 people dead.

image from mfr_isb@yahoo.com, published under a creative commons license