1947: Great Britain orders the partition of the Raj, creating two states: India and Pakistan. Acute violence surrounded partition, causing an estimated 400,000 deaths, over 13 million refugees, and 75,000 cases of rape and abduction of women on both sides of the new border.
1947-1948: First India-Pakistan war over Kashmir.
1958: On 27 October, a military coup places General Ayub Khan in power.
1965: Second India-Pakistan war over Kashmir.
1969: Military ruler Ayub Khan is succeeded by Yahya Khan.
1970: Democratic interlude with first ever general election instating Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as president.
1971: Civil war in East Pakistan ends in East Pakistan’s secession and the formation of the state of Bangladesh. India's interference in support of Bengali secessionists causes the third India-Pakistan war during the same period.
1973-1977: Civil war erupts in Baluchistan between the Pakistani army and an array of nationalist and separatist Baluch armed groups including the BLA, BRA and Baluch Ittihad.
1977: A military coup places General Ziaul-Haq in power, deposing democratically elected Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and executing him after a sham trial in 1979.
1988: Civilian governance is restored after Zia’s death in a plane crash. Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, wins the general election as the head of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP).
1990-1999: Infighting between Benazir Bhutto’s PPP and Nawaz Sharif’s Pakistan Muslim League (PML-N) fosters political instability as administrations are dismissed before reaching the end of their term in office, multiplying the opportunities for further military interference in civilian affairs.
1999: Kargil war: Sharif government' peace initiative with India ends when Pakistani soldiers violate the de facto border in the Kashmiri district of Kargil, triggering violent clashes. Benazir Bhutto leaves the country as General Pervez Musharraf stages military coup against Nawaz Sharif.
2001: Pakistan joins the US-led “War on Terror”, officially withdrawing support to the Taliban regime and sending Pakistani troops to the border with Afghanistan.
2002: Musharraf vows to restore democracy while indefinitely extending his position as head of the army. In October, rigged elections marked the growing accommodation between the pro-military PML-Q and the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, an alliance of right-wing religious parties who further there Islamisation agenda unhindered by Musharraf while leaving foreign policy and defence issues to the military.
2003: Pakistan and India declare Kashmir ceasefire.
2007: On 28 November, Musharraf officially renounced to his position as head of the Army. Benazir Bhutto returns from exile in October, only to be assassinated on 27 December 2007 at a PPP rally shortly before the parliamentary elections.
2008: The delayed parliamentary elections are finally held in February, restoring civilian rule and bringing to power a coalition between the PPP and PML-N. Yusuf Raza Gilani is elected prime minister in March, while Musharraf resigns in August.
2008 (September): Bhutto’s widower and PPP-leader Asif Ali Zardari is elected president of Pakistan.
2009 (Feb): Pakistani Government proclaims a truce with Taliban in the North allowing them jurisdiction to enforce Shariah law in their territories.
2009 (Mar): Militants attack Sri Lankan cricket team in Lahore.
2009 (May): The Pakistani army wages its largest campaign, Operation Rah-e-Rast, against the ‘Pakistani Taliban’ in the Swat, causing widespread displacement of civilians, while the TPP retaliate against government targets, causing civilian deaths.
2009 (Jun): India and Pakistan hold a meeting to improve relationship borders and commitment against terrorism.
2009 (Aug): Pakistani Taliban leader Baitullah Mehsud assassinated in South Waziristan.
2010 (Aug): Works floods take place in over 80 years affecting more than 20 million people. Government response widely criticised.
2011 (Jan): Governor of Punjab Salman Taseer is assassinated by his bodyguard, Mumtaz Qadri, in retaliation to Mr Taseer's support for amending the controversial Blasphemy Law. The law allows for the death penalty to be given to anyone proven guilty of insulting Islam or the Prophet. Mr Taseer's funeral saw large-scale protests against and in favor of his killing.
2011 (Feb): The PPP's MP Sherry Rehman drops her bid to amend the Blasphemy Law.
2011 (Mar): Minorities Minister Shahbaz Bhatti is assassinated. The only Christian in the cabinet, he had received death threats for joining the movement to reform the Blasphemy Laws.