Johan Galtung, born in 1930 in Oslo, Norway, is the founder of Peace and Conflict Studies. He completed a PhD in Mathematics in 1956 and one in Sociology in 1957, and founded the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo in 1959 as well as the Journal of Peace Research in 1964. He is Professor of Peace Studies, Doctor Honoris Causa in many universities around the world. He was awarded the Right Livelihood Award (the Alternative Nobel Peace Prize) in 1987, the Bajaj International Award for Promoting Gandhian Values in 1993, the Norwegian Literary Prize Brage in 2000, the First Morton Deutsch Conflict Resolution Award in 2001, the Premio Hidalgo, Madrid in 2005, and the Augsburg Golden Book of Peace in 2006. He is also the founder of TRANSCEND: A Network for Peace, Development and Environment.